Ceremonies and Customs

Sabzevar local dance is one of the manifestations of history and culture in the westwest region of Khorasan Razavi, which is taken from the special lifestyle of the people of this region during the period of publication.

Historical researches have estimated Sabzevar to be about 12 thousand years old.
It is obvious that a city and a region with such antiquity that a collection of customs is used, which continues from the leaves of the original history and culture of this region.

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Nowruz

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Choli Choghal

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Show wooden horse fights and battles

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Reading Shahnameh

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Neck scar

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Snowman Festival

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Religion of Objeh

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Palm tree

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Fireworks Wednesday

  • The ritual show of Chawli Choghal is mostly performed by children. The elders wear old and worn clothes and ask God to send rain and give them happiness so that they can put on new clothes.

  • In fact, the chowli is a device used to drain or separate food and its contents inside the pot, and this tool is used in the long run as a symbol of rain prayer.

  • The chawli consists of two parts, the handle and the phloem, and in Athen Chavli Chaghl, it is closed horizontally on the wooden chawli handle, which forms the doll’s hands, and the chawli phloem part becomes the doll’s head. Chawli carbide is an inverted wooden spatula in religious ceremonies that is reversed in Chawli’s play.

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وقتی چاولی چغل به درب منازل دامداران،چوپانان و...برده می شود بچه ها می
خوانند

چاولی چغل بارو کو/ صدمن گندم ارزو کو

گندما د زیر زاله/ از توشنیا مو ناله

الله بته به رحمت/ صلوات بر محمد

  • Phonetic pattern

    The children’s chorus forms a ritual example that resonates in the general atmosphere of the village by reading the poem of Chawli Choghal, the phonological example of this ritual show.

  • Speech sample

    Salawat is a verbal example of this ritual play that is sent by anyone who hears the chowli choghal chanting voice, and since the mention of Salawat of mercy is with him, God sends the rain of His mercy on His servants.

  • Taste sample

    The cooking of special fresh bread by the old women of the village from the flours collected by Chawli Choghal Gardan, which was distributed among all the children, is a taste of this ritual.

شاهنامه خوانی
شاهنامه خوانی
شاهنامه خوانی
شاهنامه خوانی
اسب چوبی
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چولی چغل
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  • The Sabzevar wooden horse ritual dates back to the time of the Mongols, and in the past Iranians used to prepare both their daughters and sons for battle through local dances. Mohammad Abdullahzadeh Sani, regarding the formation of this ritual, said: “During the Moghol rule, when the youth were not allowed to fight and practice heroic deeds, the only way was education through these dances.” On the other hand, because the Mongols had become so arrogant that they attacked wedding ceremonies in groups or individually and stole the bride by killing the groom, the people of Sabzevar prepared for such aggression by holding Rituals such as the wooden horse practiced fighting and how to deal with the enemy. In these ceremonies, the wooden horse is a symbol of the one-wheeler that comes, if the one-horse rider is a friend, it is welcomed, and if it is the enemy, it is destroyed by the people.
    A pavilion of the Sabzevar Anthropological Museum is also dedicated to the introduction of the wooden horse ritual.

  • Components and how to make a wooden horse:

    A wooden horse with two rectangles and two circles that surround the rectangle, a circle called “ghalbor” in the local term and the actor is placed in it, and two straps that are attached to the horse and placed on the actor’s shoulder. According to his definition, there is a cloth around the rectangular space that covers the actor’s leg, the horse’s neck that is attached to the horse’s body and the wooden horse’s head, which is usually made of fabric, are other components of the wooden horse. It is placed in the middle of the ghalbor and plays a role with foot movements and shouting along with local instruments and sounds. It is God-given. Percussion instruments such as the sorna and the instrument are also used to create balance in the movement of the wooden horse.

  • Abolfazl Tabasi, director of the ritual play Bazm and Razm, won the Best Director Award at the Marivan Street Theater Festival.

  • Wooden horse is the greatest symbol of solidarity and connection of Sabzevar. Of course, Sabzevar here means not only the current geographical Sabzevar but also the cultural climate of Sabzevar, which is based on the spread of Sarbedaran culture from northern Iran to eastern, southern and parts of former Russia. And is the culmination of Sabzevar’s cultural expansion during the Sarbedaran era.

    Sabzevar is the origin of the beautiful wooden horse ritual, but this ceremony is performed in the surrounding cities such as Bardaskan, Neishabour, Biarjamand and even Turkmenistan and Tajikistan.

  • Today, the wooden horse ritual is used as a funny and hilarious ceremony in weddings and circumcision ceremonies.

    Fortunately, there are still signs of local dances and rituals in Sabzevar, such as the use of local dances during weddings, although people may not be fully aware of what the movements of the hands and feet in these dances are. In the past, why were these movements done, but the people of Sabzevar still keep the customs of their past.

  • The ritual of the wooden horse is now in celebrations, weddings, Nowruz holidays and also in one of the biggest ritual, field performances entitled “Gham Bara Shadi Bia” on the last Wednesday of the year in some villages of this city, including Tabas Sabzevar village. Runs.

    The ritual of “wooden horse” has been performed by the artists of Sabzevar city in regional and national festivals, Fajr Film Festival and even in Germany and Russia, which is an honor for this city.

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(Tehran International Exhibition of Wooden Horses)

آیین خال گردن
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آیین خال گردن
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آیین خال گردن
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The ritual of palm-turning in Sabzevar, according to the existence of palms that have a history of construction, dates back to about 500 years ago, ie to the 9th century AH.

The palm-carving ritual begins on the morning of Ashura at the same time as the sun rises, and at this time the women’s breasts and chains begin to move with the caravan of Imam Hussein (AS). At the beginning of the symbolic caravan, Imam Hussein (AS) and his companions ride on horses and in green clothes and in front of the caravan of Qamar Bani Hashem moves with their knowledge behind the ridges with camels and horses and behind them the armies of life on the floor of Imam Hussein ( AS) with spears and then the riders of Ashqia and the leaders and commanders of Yazid army move with long spears.

The palm consists of a wooden or iron frame covered with a simple black cloth on the palm with rugs, inscriptions and fabrics that women artists of the past, according to their vows, with elegance and belief in the names of the Imams. And Aba Abdullah crochets, gets covered and hangs on this palm, the door (bells) and someone inside, rings these bells while moving, the sound of these bells is reminiscent of the caravan camels It is Abu Abdullah Al-Hussein (AS).

Another person who rides on top of a palm tree is known as Chavosh and he recites poems related to Seyyed al-Shuhada and the epic of Ashura with a happy voice and people send them around Salawat.

Each person under the palm has an alternative, and people carry the palm with special vests, and while moving when they feel tired, they give their place to the other by saying “Ya Allah”.

The size of the palm varies depending on the size of the city or village and is restored every year according to their age. The largest palm in Mazinan Palm city is one of the functions of Sabzevar arbitrator district, which accommodates up to 80 people under the palm.

Hosseini mourners carry the palm with faith, honestly and with tears, and rotate the palm in holy places and between mourning processions.

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Fireworks Wednesday is one of the Iranian festivals that is held on the night of the last Wednesday of the year (Tuesday night). In Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh, there are references to the Wednesday feast near Nowruz, which shows that the Syrian Wednesday celebration is ancient. The traditional ceremony of this national holiday has long been kept alive in the traditional culture of the Iranian people.

The word “Fireworks Wednesday” is made up of two words, Wednesday, which is the name of one of the days of the week, and Fireworks, which means red.

Fireworks Wednesday is celebrated in such a way that on the night of the last Wednesday of the year (ie near sunset on Tuesday), a fire is lit outside the house, in front of the door, in a suitable atmosphere, and the family, men, women and children are on fire. They jump and by saying: “My yellowness is from you, your redness is from me”, they burn the diseases, sorrows and worries of the old year, to start the new year with comfort and happiness, and to establish it in the villages of Sabzevar. The fire, which was mostly burning or collecting pollution from the gardens, was said after jumping over the fire:

Qam Bara, Shadi Bia  Mehnat Bara, Ruzi Bia  Sale Now Bia, Khoob Bia  Mehnat Bara, Shadi Bia   

(Go sad,Let happiness come
Go hard,One day it will come
The new year is coming,Come on
Go hard,Let happiness come)  

At the end of the fire, the housewife collects the ashes of the fire and takes them outside, far away, and the inhabitants of the house ask her:

Be Kooj Mery? Be Kicha Mery?! Dard O Bulaye Khana Mare Ve Biri Az Khana Babur

(where are you going? Are you going to the alley? Take the pain and misery of our house out of the house.) 

He took the ashes out of the house and placed them in a windbreak to be carried away by the wind or poured into running water to carry the ashes. When he returned home, he knocked on the door:

The big person of the house said: Who are you?

Woman: I am

Man: Where are you from ?!

Woman: From the wedding

Man: What did you bring?

Woman: Health

Some people attribute the burning of the night on the last Wednesday of the year, or the last Wednesday of zero, to Mukhtar’s uprising: Mukhtar, the famous Arab general, when he was released from prison and revolted against the blood of the martyrs of Karbala, And to attack the infidels, he ordered the Shiites to light a fire on the roof of their house, and this night coincided with the last Wednesday night of the year. And has been customary ever since.

(Wood game ritual)

(Pit-breaking ritual)

Nowruz is one of the oldest celebrations that has been registered as a spiritual heritage in UNESCO and the United Nations with the cooperation of 12 countries. Provide Nowruz rituals.
Sabzevar is one of the cities in which the variety of Nowruz celebrations has a long history and has a lot of variety.

The rituals of Nowruz date back to the third millennium BC and in ancient Iran they celebrated the night close to the night of the New Year and referred to it as the last surah. After the advent of Islam, the days of the month were divided into four weeks. The night coincided with the last Wednesday night of the year, and henceforth the last year of the year was renamed ‘Syrian Wednesday’.

On Wednesday night, various ceremonies were performed in different parts of Sabzevar city, including some who believed that the souls of the dead were free on this night and day and came to their worldly homes, so they cooked food called ‘alifa’ and Along with the blue bowl, the roofs of the houses were placed so that the souls of the dead could use them. Others threw yellow oil bread on the roof to feed the dead because they believed the dead would one day eat it.

In most areas of Sabzevar, a kind of ‘special soup’ is prepared on this night, which is known as ‘lamb soup’. In this soup, instead of noodles, they use dough that is divided into smaller pieces and to cook it, first a combination of vegetables. The local special is boiled together and its extract is placed in small pieces of dough, then it is boiled together, and after cooking, the soup is combined with yogurt and eaten, and it is also kept for the Nowruz table. This custom is still performed in Sabzevar on the eve of Nowruz, and the youth and teenagers of this city are no strangers to it.

Another ceremony that was performed on this night is ‘shawl-making’. In the shawl-laying ceremony, a stranger or a stranger went to the roof of the house and took his shawl through the ‘horno’ window If the landlord did not know the owner of the shawl, he would pull the shawl so much that the man would leave the shawl, and if he did not have the strength, they would snack on him, such as apricot leaves, peaches, and some sugar and money, and so on.

(Ladle rite welcomes spring)

(Espand Gardani ritual welcomes spring)

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